The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge. Retrieved from ” https: Their tactics, proscribed as terrorist by many countries, are ruthless, brutal and highly efficient in eliminating their opposition.

The resultant disconnection of society and edwarrd state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups.

Although the Cyprus conflict now lasts for a long time, its resolution does not seem to be close. The pre proposals of different federal or centralist arrangements failed as one or the other side rejected them. Journal of Peace Research 38 3— After parties have articulated their animosities, the next stage is termed the reflexive—reframing stage where the “why” and “who” of the issue is examined.

Four preconditions are isolated by Azar as the predominant sources of protracted social conflict: The incidents escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils. Among the Sinhalese, the anti-Tamil chauvinism started to spread and the Tamils were more and more disadvantaged and excluded.

But hostilities continued and even intensified. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. However, it remains a challenge for conflict analysts and peace builders to arrive at an accurate assessment of the actual causes of the conflict for successful resolution and this provokes further analysis of the Rwanda conflict. Conflict resolution can truly occur and last if satisfactory amelioration of underdevelopment occurs as well.

The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for protractd equally represented without bias or corruption.

Protracted social conflict

Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition. The effect of this stage is termed resonance, as each side has articulated their core concerns and heard the concerns of the edwrad actors.


With government being “endowed with the authority to govern and use force where necessary to regulate society, to protect citizens, and to provide collective goods,” [8] the government plays a leading role in the satisfaction or lack of satisfaction of minority and identity groups.

This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south. He terms this approach the ARIA model. Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize edwar needs and identities of the conflicting parties. Such a need for structural change is likely to result in a violent conflict.

Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence. The dominant group isolates itself from the needs of other groups, leading to an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. This in turn emphasizes Azar’s theory that the “deprivation of human needs is the underlying source of protracted social conflict” where conflict is emphasized by the collective grievances of a group of people.

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This involves the “political—economic relations of economic dependency coonflict the international economic system, and the network of political-military linkages constituting regional and global patterns of clientage and cross-border interest.

The communal groups may experience deep-seated cleavages based upon racial, religious, cultural or ethnic lines.

The major conflict began with the independence inwhen Greek community wanted a union enosis with Greece, to which the Turkish community opposed.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term. Tamil secessionists saw the establishment of their own separate state as the only way for securing their people.

Groups that seek to satisfy their identity and security needs through conflict are in effect seeking change in the structure of their society. They run a parallel government in edwward areas of the north and east of Sri Lanka. Protracted social conflict is a technical term in a theory developed by Edward Azar.

Protracted social conflict – Wikipedia

In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues in particular. This precondition also involves the reliance that many people protrxcted on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social conflict are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human necessities to the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability.


The division in changed the demographics of Cyprus dramatically, putting it in a position where federalist model would be the most appropriate. The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, conglict well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions. Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict. This creates a “crisis of legitimacy” [9] in the governance of these countries.

In s the southern Republic of Cyprus applied for a membership in the European Unionand the Turkish Cypriots on the other side turned to Turkey. Abstract The complexity of the conflict in Rwanda has called for the application of various theories, suggestions and recommendations to the situation by various scholars and researchers in an attempt for conflict resolution.

The constitution brought a complex system of power-sharingbut both groups wanted to gain more advantages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Metadata Show full item record. In the northern part declared Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, which declared independence in as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusrecognized only by Turkey. Olson, “From Interest to Identities: Azar notes, “that it is the relationship between identity groups zocial the states, which is at the core of the problem.

Since its independence in there has been a conflict between Sinhalese, which gained control over the Sri Lankan government, and different Tamil separatist movements.

Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, edwarrd, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs. In the Ceasefire soial was signed, and the government agreed to disarm all paramilitary groups in the north and east. Some features of this site may not work without it.

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